The city of Christchurch experienced a major earthquake centred south of the city; severe damage and casualties occurred. , In the immediate aftermath of the earthquakes, the National Crisis Management Centre was activated through The Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management to manage public response to the disaster; hundreds of police officers were accordingly dispatched to patrol the city streets. The BGS detected a 6.3 Mw earthquake at 23:51 UTC on 21 February 2011 located
On that day a magnitude 7.1 quake struck to the west of Christchurch.  Several days after the tremor, dislodged electrical wiring from the ongoing aftershocks sparked a small fire in a control panel at Christchurch Hospital. The eastern … Most Cantabrians were away from their homes when the 6.3-magnitude earthquake struck at 12.51 p.m. on 22 February 2011. The damage in Christchurch was far more substantial than the damage caused in the 7.1 earthquake only 5 months before. It has treated over 220 serious injuries so far, even though sometimes they were working by torchlight. Concerns arose about the condition of previously damaged structures, and the 13 June earthquakes caused further distress among many victims. Of the 185 victims, 115 people died in the Canterbury Television building alone, while another 18 died in the collapse of PGC House, and eight were killed when masonry fell on Red Bus number 702 in Colombo Street. Browse more videos. Christchurch 2011 earthquake location Tuesday, February 22, 2011 at 12:51:43 PM at epicentre. Data from GNS Science, New Zealand. Before the Darfield earthquake there was little indication that this fault system existed and could result in large earthquakes. Before the Darfield earthquake there was little indication that this fault system existed and could result in large earthquakes. In the South Island most of the relative displacement between these plates is taken up along a single dextral (right lateral) strike-slip fault with a major reverse component, the Alpine Fault. (This is 23:51 21 February UTC). Restoration costs in Christchurch following the February earthquake were estimated to increase by NZ$6 billion (US$4.8 billion) because of the additional damage from this event. , Focused only several kilometres below the surface, the earthquake resulted in significant shaking over a large portion of central-eastern South Island. The second (Christchurch) earthquake (Mw = 6.2) on 22 February 2011, caused by a thrust fault, affected the same region. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 M w earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST (02:20 UTC).It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 M W earthquake in February 2011. On Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12.51 p.m. Christchurch was badly damaged by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake, which killed 185 people and injured several thousand.
It is possible that these initiatives were protective and prevented more significant adverse consequences being observed. New Zealand lies along the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. The June quake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 ML tremor that struck the region at a slightly deeper 8.9 km (5.5 mi).  Dozens of dissatisfied residents were expected to move out of the city, and many others sought professional help for anxiety and depression-related issues.  This zone of deformation is now known to be expanding south and east into the Canterbury region.  It caused damage to buildings and infrastructure alike, collapsing or otherwise destroying several homes. This latest shock is much closer to the main population centre of Christchurch than the magnitude 7.1 earthquake that occurred on 3 September 2010, approximately 40 km west of the city, and caused significant damage. The United States Geological Survey reported a magnitude of 6.0 Mwanâ¦ Report. Over half of the deaths occurred in the six-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) Building, which collapsed and caught fire in the earthquake. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. As the earthquake struck at a busy time and at the town centre, a busy place more, damage and casualties happened then the previous 7.1 magnitude earthquake in 2010 than the 6.3 magnitude earthquake in 2011, more people were killed, a total 185 deaths and 2 â¦ On 22 February 2011, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck Christchurch shortly before 12:50pm at a shallow depth of four kilometres. The earthquake â¦ The spire of ChristChurch Cathedral has completely collapsed. Mon 21 Feb 2011 19.52 EST A strong 6.3-magnitude earthquake has struck the city of Christchurch on New Zealand's South Island, seriously injuring people and damaging buildings throughout the city. The September quake had occurred in the early hours of the morning with family generally close at hand.  The multi-story HSBC Tower shook considerably during the quake, but damage was limited to cracks and broken roof tiles. Mon 21 Feb 2011 19.52 EST A strong 6.3-magnitude earthquake has struck the city of Christchurch on New Zealand's South Island, seriously injuring people and damaging buildings throughout the city. Prime TV documentary on the Christchurch earthquake. In the ten minutes after it hit, there were 10 aftershocks of magnitude 4 or more.  The United States Geological Survey reported a magnitude of 6.0 Mw and a focal depth of 9 km (5.6 mi) for the earthquake, while the precursor tremor was assigned a magnitude of 5.2 Mw at a similar depth.  Despite its moderate magnitude, the preceding magnitude 5.6 ML tremor caused several two-story buildings at a road intersection to collapse. Follow. Black circles represent earthquakes from September 3, 2010, until February 21, 2011. Contact Brian Baptie for further information. The earthquake epicentre was near Lyttelton, just 10 kilometres south-east of Christchurchâs central business district. The cityâs central business district was severely hit with widespread building and infrastructural damage. , The NZX 50 Index fell by 0.4 percent to its lowest level since 20 April. A moment magnitude (M w) 6.2 earthquake struck beneath the outer suburbs of Christchurch, New Zealand's second largest city, on 22 February 2011 local time.The Christchurch earthquake was the deadliest in New Zealand since the 1931 M w 7.8 Hawkes Bay earthquake and the most expensive in New Zealand's recorded history. Seismologists began to record the biggest tremor, a magnitude 6.3, on their equipment at 12:51 and 43 seconds local time (23:51:43 GMT) - right in the middle of Christchurch's day. Several smaller aftershocks followed. , In light of the possibility of aftershocks, police evacuated shopping malls and office buildings around the city. The earthquake in February 2011 occurred at 12:51 p.m. and just 10 kilometers (6 miles) from the center of Christchurch. Both earthquakes caused extensive liquefaction, associated ground deformation and severe damage to residential … [GNS Science] Aftershock detection. Aftershocks since the magnitude 7.1 earthquake of 3 September 2010 until the magnitude 6.3 earthquake of 21 February 2011, Aftershocks since magnitude 6.3 earthquake of 21 February 2011 until 25 February 2011.  A total of NZ$285,000 (US$230,000) was allocated for donations to nine charities, including NZ$40,000 (US$32,000) to both the Red Cross Christchurch earthquake appeal and the Canterbury Earthquake Appeal Salvation Army funds.  Consequently, sand boils emerged from asphalt roads, toppling a few cars and sinking another. 1:33. The Darfield earthquake (Mw 7.1; ML 7.2) occurred along a previously unknown strike-slip fault in Canterbury Province, New Zealand on 4 September 2010. © UKRI document.write(new Date().getFullYear()), BGS geologist caught up in Christchurch earthquake, Environmental Baseline Monitoring in the Vale of Pickering, A Comparison of the Folkestone and Market Rasen Earthquakes, Seismogenesis and State of Stress in the UK, Monitoring Volcanic Eruptions Using Interferometry. Nearly 200 people died. It was about 5 km underground. 3 000 buildings in total were inspected, of that total 45% were deemed unsafe and were given a yellow or red sticker. The magnitude 6.3 earthquake, that devastated Christchurch on 21 February 2011, is seen late in the sequence and occurred on a fault segment slightly further to the east. Beneath the northern and eastern Canterbury Plains, a series of active SW-NE trending thrust faults have been recognised, linked by W-E trending strike-slip faults that at least in part reactivate Cretaceous age extensional faults.  The earthquake's impact extended beyond national grounds; in light of its occurrence, Insurance Australia Group reported a net claim loss of A$65 million (US$61.5 million).  In addition, the New Zealand dollar declined in the wake of the disaster, dropping by nearly 0.01 US dollar, or about 1.3%. | April 2010, Are yesterday's earthquakes tomorrow's disasters? On Tuesday 22 February 2011 at 12.51 p.m. Christchurch was badly damaged by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake, which killed 185 people and injured several thousand. An earthquake occurred in Christchurch on 22 February 2011 at 12:51 p.m. local time (23:51 21 February UTC) and registered 6.3 on the Richter scale. It struck the Canterbury region of the island and caused a lot of damage and many deaths in Christchurch, New Zealand's second largest city. (This is 23:51 21 February UTC). ", Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management, UC CEISMIC Canterbury Earthquakes Digital Archive, "Magnitude 6.0, Mon Jun 13 2011 2:20 PM: Technical", "Pager Version 2 - M 6.0, South Island of New Zealand", "New Zealand Earthquake Report - Jun 13 2011 at 2:20 pm (NZST)", "Large earthquakes strike south-east of Christchurch", "Magnitude 6.0, Mon Jun 13 2011 2:20 PM: Details", Terminations of large strike-slip faults: an alternative model from New Zealand, Hope Fault, Jordan Thrust, and uplift of the Seaward Kaikoura Range, New Zealand, "GeoNet – M 8.2, Wairarapa, January 23, 1855", "Christchurch earthquake: history of New Zealand tremors", "Editorial: Christchurch people need to hear the truth", "Earthquake Summary for the June 13, 2011 South Island, New Zealand earthquake", "New Zealand Earthquake Report - Jun 13 2011 at 1:00 pm (NZST)", "Magnitude 6.0 - South Island of New Zealand", "Magnitude 5.2 - South Island of New Zealand", "New Zealand Earthquake Report - Jun 15 2011 at 6:27 am (NZST)", "Christchurch aftershock upgraded to 5.4", "Pager - M 6.0 - South Island of New Zealand", http://i.stuff.co.nz/national/5136644/Powerful-earthquakes-rock-Christchurch, "Christchurch hit by two large earthquakes", "Second major 6.0 aftershock hits Christchurch", "Dual quakes rock Christchurch, New Zealand", "Strong quakes again rock shaken New Zealand city", "Christchurch hit by swarm of earthquakes", "Springs created by quake cause flooding", "Christchurch consents tumble on June earthquakes", "Christchurch's June 13 earthquake costs IAG $65 million", "Powerful earthquakes have again rocked Canterbury on Monday, causing injury and damage", "Terror returns as earthquakes rock city", "Health concerns highlights after latest quake", "Media Release from Lyttelton Port of Christchurch", "Christchurch quake bill could rise 6 billion", "Latest updates: 'This place is going mad, "Christchurch wakes again to quake damage", "Mental health takes big hit from quakes", "Chch quake upgraded now equal to February", "Aussies pay $10k a head for quake dinner", Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), Canterbury Earthquake Response and Recovery Act 2010, Canterbury Earthquake Commemoration Day Act 2011, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=June_2011_Christchurch_earthquake&oldid=989893199, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Building collapse, power outages, broken water pipes, soil liquefaction, rockfall, This page was last edited on 21 November 2020, at 16:57.  Multiple hospitals and residential care facilities in Christchurch were left without essential services, and some even reported considerable infrastructural damage. The June quake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 ML tremor that struck the region at a slightly deeper 8.9 km (5.5 mi).  In some parts of the Heathcote Valley, previously dormant or non-existent natural springs surfaced because of a sudden rise in the water table, flooding some properties. At least 65 people have died after a 6.3-magnitude earthquake struck Christchurch on New Zealand's South Island, Prime Minister John Key says, with fears that the toll will rise. A personal view of the earthquake that happened in Christchurch on Feb 22, 2011 and the subsequent quakes thereafter. Nov 25, 2018 - Explore Lorina Adkins's board "Christchurch Earthquake", followed by 209 people on Pinterest.  Chief executives from the Commonwealth Bank sponsored an exclusive dinner in Sydney to raise money for rebuilding costs; an initial A$700,000 (US$660,000) was allocated prior to the event, with entry costs of A$10,000 (US$9,500) per ticket.  Lyttelton Port, a major harbour in the region, suffered additional damage from the tremors and underwent full engineering assessments. Playing next. , Mouslopoulou, V., Nicol, A., Little, T.A. The building had become structurally compromised due to its collapsed western wall, and the strong vibrations had shattered its stained glass rose window. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010â11, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. The deadliest earthquake in New Zealand was a 7.8 event that occurred at Hawkes Bay in 1931; leaving 256 dead. 185 people from more than 20 countries died in the earthquake. Essential organisations in the area were evacuated as a safety precaution, including the police headquarters and offices of the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority. In the North Island the displacement is mainly taken up along the Kermadec subduction zone, although the remaining dextral strike-slip component of the relative plate motion is accommodated by the North Island Fault System (NIFS). The earthquake in February 2011 occurred at 12:51 p.m. and just 10 kilometers (6 miles) from the center of Christchurch. The landforms of Sumner recorded intensified shaking due to the effects of its topographic setting. The earthquake downed phone lines and cut off power to 54,000 households. Christchurch Hospital was evacuated due to damage in some areas, but soon reopened to treat the injured. | Guardian, Is earthquake activity increasing?  Months before the event, a severe magnitude 6.2 earthquake occurred in a similar area adjacent to Christchurch, causing widespread destruction and fatalities in the city. The earthquake’s epicentre was near Lyttelton, just 10 km south-east of Christchurch’s central business district. The â¦ , Seismologists reported that the earthquakes were part of a prolonged aftershock sequence associated with the major magnitude 7.1 earthquake of September 2010, which includes the February 2011 event. See more ideas about Christchurch, Earthquake, Christchurch new zealand. Magnitude: M L 6.3 Casualties: 185 deaths The earthquake produced severe shaking, registering at VIII on the Mercalli scale in and around Christchurch. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 Mw earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST (02:20 UTC). The event has led to the discovery of previously dormant geological faults across central-eastern South Island, in particular beneath regional plains and the adjacent seabed. The earthquake was felt as far away as New Plymouth and Invercargill.  There were at least 46 injuries: falling debris struck several people, and two others were hospitalised in critical condition. A three-month reconstruction project was scheduled to start in October 2011, with an estimated total cost of NZ$30 million (US$24 million). It destroyed several structures and caused additional damage to many others which had been affected by previous earthquakes. Christchurch Earthquake 2011.  In all, experts estimated the earthquake would increase reconstruction costs in Christchurch by about NZ$6 billion (US$4.83 billion). The earthquake was a direct result of strike-slip faulting at the eastern end of the rupture zone of a strong magnitude 6.2 MW earthquake, which occurred on 22 February 2011 along the Port Hills Fault. M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011. The 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake which struck the South Island of New Zealand at 12:51 pm on 22 February 2011 NZT. Creating 'virtual seismometers' deep inside the Earth. At 12.51pm on Tuesday 22 February 2011, an earthquake (an aftershock following a large earthquake in September 2010) of Richter scale magnitude 6.3 (energy magnitude 6.7) struck the Christchurch region (depth 5km with its epicentre Lyttleton). 02/22/2011 10:16 am ET Updated May 25, 2011 New Zealand Earthquake 2011: Christchurch In Ruins After 6.3-Magnitude Temblor At least 65 people have died after a massive earthquake toppled churches and tall buildings in one of New Zealand's biggest cities. Since the European settlement, the largest on record was a magnitude 8.2 ML major earthquake that occurred on 23 January 1855 near the Wairarapa plains of the North Island.  Despite significant energy release, the earthquakes were believed to have increased the risk of an additional aftershock of similar magnitude; calculations from GNS Science indicated a 23 percent probability of a magnitude 6.0–6.9 ML earthquake occurring in the Canterbury aftershock zone within the 12 months following the event. , The magnitude 6.0 Mw earthquake occurred inland on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST, (02:20 UTC) at a shallow depth of 7 km (4 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) to the south-east of Christchurch, New Zealand. Christchurch earthquake. The city’s central business district was severely hit with widespread building and infrastructural damage. On 22 February 2011, at 12:51 pm (lunchtime), Christchurch was struck by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake.  Nationwide, building consents tumbled considerably, further dropping by 4.5% in the wake of the aftershock. It was about 5 km underground. Christchurch Earthquake 2011. Are yesterday's earthquakes tomorrow's disasters? Christchurch, the countryâs second largest city, suffered widespread damage, particularly in the central city and eastern suburbs.  Widespread lighter motions were observed throughout much of the remaining region, with slight property damage reported from as far afield as Dunedin. The magnitude 6.3 earthquake hit Christchurch, home to nearly 400,000 people on New Zealand's southeast coast. Magnitude 9.0–9.1 (M w ) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately 70 km east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 29 km. The magnitude 6.3 earthquake, that devastated Christchurch on 21 February 2011, is seen late in the sequence and occurred on a fault segment slightly further to the east. The following morning, officials confirmed the death of an elderly man who had been knocked unconscious from a fall in his nursery home. A news item involving 2011 Christchurch earthquake was featured on Wikipedia's Main Page in the In the news section on 22 February 2011.  Several houses in the hill suburbs of Sumner and Redcliffs were affected by falling boulders from hillsides. Lives have been lost, people have been injured and properties have collapsed and been heavily damaged. 185 people died as a result of the magnitude 6.3 earthquake that struck the Canterbury region on 22 February, 2011. , The earthquake and the precursor tremor struck during the afternoon near a populated area, where most buildings had been left in precarious conditions by the February 2011 event. The February 22 2011 earthquake was in fact an aftershock of the M 7. The Christchurch Earthquake (2011) Home; Causes ; Impacts ; Mitigation; References ; Casualties, Damages and Other Effects. 19 likes. | Independent, New Zealand earthquake: buildings failed when ground turned to liquid 185 people died, 164 people were seriously injured and there was major, widespread damage. It struck the Canterbury region of the island and caused a lot of damage and many deaths in Christchurch, New Zealand's second largest city.. It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 MW earthquake in February 2011. (This is 23:51 21 February UTC). This map shows the earthquakes that occurred near Christchurch since September 3, 2010.  The June earthquake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 ML tremor with a similar focal mechanism that struck 1 hour and 20 minutes earlier. Forty-six people suffered injuries, two of which critical, and one elderly man died after being knocked unconscious. It was centred 11 km beneath the rural town of Darfield, on the Greendale fault, which was previously unidentified. Christchurch City lies 40 km east of Darfield, and was home to a population of approximately 370,000 at the time of the earthquake. There was extensive damage as a result of … On 22 February 2011, at 12:51 pm, Christchurch was struck by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake. The Christchurch event occurred during the daytime, which increased the number of fatalities, and the buildings weren't designed for the level of shaking that occurred. The June earthquake affected roughly 400,000 people, most of whom may have experienced strong (MM VI) shaking. M 6.2 Christchurch Tue, Feb 22 2011. Many of those killed are as a result of debris falling and crushing the occupants of two buses in Christchurch. The effects of the earthquake on the region's population and … The magnitude 7.1 Mw event of 4 September 2010 produced by far the strongest ground motions ever recorded in the Canterbury region, triggering a large number of aftershocks. A news item involving 2011 Christchurch earthquake was featured on Wikipedia's Main Page in the In the news section on 22 February 2011. This will show photo's from our earthquakes and to remember how Christchurch used to be and never forget those we lost.  The Student Volunteer Army – which partook in silt shifting after the February 2011 quake – again prepared the recruitment of participants to initiate street clearing actions. The 10th anniversary of the February 2011 earthquake will be marked with a civic memorial service and a free concert featuring Bic Runga. On the 23 February, the day after the recent Christchurch earthquake, I had the opportunity to travel to Christchurch to spend two weeks with the New Zealand Red Cross, documenting the work of staff and volunteers as they assisted with search and rescue, and recovery operations in the wake of the magnitude 6.3 earthquake. Although similar aftershock sequences have historically occurred around the world, such occurrences were extremely unusual in the region, which had shown low levels of seismic activity for thousands of years. âI thought weâd dodged a bullet with the Darfield earthquake,â says Bill. Christchurch Earthquake 2011. A magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury Region of New Zealand at 4:35 am on 4 September 2010. Magnitude: M L 6.3; Casualties: 185 deaths; Damage to buildings in the central city, Christchurch. The U.S. Geological Survey considered the earthquake an aftershock of the magnitude â¦ The sequence of many thousands of aftershocks that followed the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake of 3 September 2010. , Though the exact extent of the losses was unclear, the earthquake caused additional damage to many previously affected structures in Christchurch; around half of the buildings in the city centre had already damaged or destroyed by previous earthquakes.  At Christchurch International Airport, officials halted operations after the earthquake, but all flights resumed later that day. At 12:51 p.m. local time on February 22, 2011 (11:51 p.m. February 21 UTC), a 6.3-magnitude earthquake struck the South Island of New Zealand, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reported. Kaiapoi is a town in the Waimakariri District of the Canterbury region, in the South Island of New Zealand.  Owing to the interaction of the major Pacific and Australia Plates, much of the regional plate boundary along central South Island is characterised by land deformation.  They were succeeded by multiple lighter aftershocks; the strongest, a moderate magnitude 5.1 ML struck a minute after the event. This time it was often colleagues, classmates or complete strangers who comforted and helpâ¦ , In the wake of the earthquake, multiple phone lines were down, and scattered power outages affected about 54,000 households. BGS seismologist Alice Walker and Dr David Kerridge discuss the aftershocks that followed the 7.1 Mw earthquake of 3 September 2010 that preceded the smaller, but more devastating, 6.3 Mw event of 21 February 2011. The June quake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 M L tremor that … At 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday 22 February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake caused severe damage in Christchurch and Lyttelton, killing 185 people and injuring several thousand. Buildings have collapsed around Cathedral Square in downtown Christchurch. Aâ¦ New Zealand earthquake: Depth and location key | BBC News, The unknown fault that caught out Christchurch | New Scientist, Analysis: Latest aftershock was made worse by its shallow depth | Scotsman, Seismologists blame Christchurch disaster on new fault Note how the maximum values are clustered in Christchurch, close to the rupture, and fall away fairly quickly outside it. | Sept 2010, Creating 'Virtual Seismometers' deep inside the Earth, Seismic interpretation of the Haiti earthquake, Near Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand. Due to the shallow depth and the nearby metropolitan city of Christchurch, this earthquake became a tragedy for a lot of people. Another tremor 5.0 ML struck the region two days later. Search and rescue went on for a long time.  In the city centre, two workers were brought to hospital after being rescued from a collapsed church. The reason why many scientists suggest that the 2011 Christchurch was an earthquake on its own is that it occurred on a different fault line to the 2010 Christchurch earthquake. The 6.3 magnitude earthquake - an aftershock of the 7.1 magnitude quake on September 4 - struck 20km southeast of Christchurch at around 1pm local time, with initial reports suggesting damage and fatalities far exceeding the initial quake. Dannie Maness. near Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 Mw earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST (02:20 UTC). It had a magnitude of 6.3, though was officially classifiedâscientifically speakingâas an aftershock of the 2010 quake. Maximum ground motions registered at VIII (severe) on the Mercalli intensity scale in Christchurch, while strong shaking (MM VI) was felt in adjacent populated areas such as Rolleston and Lincoln. As had happened after the 4 September 2010quake, there was a lot of liquefaction. [GNS Science] Car trapped by liquefaction in Ferrymead, Christchurch. Nearly 200 people died. A 'severe' 6.0 magnitude earthquake has hit off the south coast of New Zealand just two days after Christchurch was rocked by a powerful quake.. The study reported high levels of psychological distress but … A devastating earthquake with a 6.3 magnitude Richter scale reading struck the city of Christchurch in February 2011, a sprawling metropolis and one of the more densely populated cities in New Zealand.
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