Heavy air pollution can even lead to die-off of Sphagnum mosses, triggering for example peat erosion in blanket mires (e.g. Ecosystems 7:598–612, Peñuelas P, Prieto P, Beier C et al (2007) Responses of shrubland species richness and primary productivity to six-years experimental warming and drought in a North–South European gradient: reductions in primary productivity in the hot and dry 2003. A study simulating warming and extended summer drought in calcareous grasslands at Buxton and Wytham in northern England (Grime et al. Deposition of nitrogen and sulphur leads to acidification of top soils and thus changes the solubility and mobilisation of dissolved organic matter. Global Change Research Program, 16-1-nn. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Monteith et al. Tree Phys 29:39–51, Frolking S, Roulet NT (2007) Holocene radiative forcing impact of northern peatland carbon accumulation and methane emissions. Subsidence also influences peatland hydrology and hydrochemistry. Many of already threatened species could be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Soil respiration, and thereby carbon losses from the soil, is expected to increase under global warming, but the sensitivity of the soil carbon pool remains uncertain (Davidson and Janssens 2006; Luyssaert et al.  These factors lead to local extinctions of both plants and animals in some areas. Global Environment Centre, Kuala Lumpur and Wetlands International, Wageningen, Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. This problem has been solved! Biogeosciences 5:1475–1491, Lindner M, Maroschek M, Netherer S, Kremer A, Barbati A, Garcia-Gonzalo J, Seidl R, Delzon S, Corona P, Kolstrom M, Lexer MJ, Marchetti M (2010) Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Changing quantities and temporal patterns of precipitation will affect the water table in peatlands; with drought lowering and increased precipitation raising peatland water levels (e.g. The rise in DOC concentrations in limnic water bodies observed in the latter half of the 20th century in Great Britain and Sweden seems to have been mainly driven by decreasing S-deposition with the warming effect of minor importance (Freeman et al. For three common waterfowl species, Lehikoinen et al. 2002, Shiklomanov and Rodda 2003, UNEP 2003a, Gleick 2004). Silvola et al. Longer growing seasons (higher winter temperatures, shorter snow-cover duration) allows the vegetation to take up more photons over the year leading to higher plant productivity and peat accumulation. 2006; Hanewinkel et al. J Appl Ecol 43:759‒769, Härdtle W, Niemeyer T, Aßmann T, Aulinger A, Fichtner A, Lang AC, Leuschner C, Neuwirth B, Pfister L, Quante M, Ries C, Schuldt A, Oheimb G (2013) Climatic responses of tree-ring width and δ, Hargreaves KJ, Fowler D (1998) Quantifying the effects of water table and soil temperature on the emission of methane from peat wetland at the field scale. Overall effects of recent climate change on forest ecosystems within the region are limited, and major impacts on forest type distribution and forest functioning are unlikely if future warming is moderate and summer precipitation does not decrease as much as is projected in some of the more extreme climate scenarios. Wiley and Sons, Evans CD, Monteith DT, Cooper DM (2005) Long-term increases in surface water dissolved organic carbon: Observations, possible causes and environmental impacts. Arbeitsberichte aus dem Thünen-Institut für Agrarklimaschutz. An ecosystem refers to the animals, plants, and microorganisms that live in one place, as well as the environmental conditions that support them.. Ecosystem services include the products and services provided by ecosystems, such as food, fuel, timber, water, clean air, and medicines. A project on peatlands in Germany has shown that the annual greenhouse gas balance of managed peatland areas can be estimated well from two predictor variables—mean annual water level and carbon exported by harvest—which together can be used as a proxy for management intensity (Drösler et al. 2008; Doswald et al. Gaudnik et al. Introduction of exotics has been â¦ Holocene 10:729‒736, Gaudnik C, Corcket E, Clément B, Delmas CEL, Gombert-Courvoisier S, Muller S, Stevens CJ, Alard D (2011) Detecting the footprint of changing atmospheric nitrogen deposition loads on acid grasslands in the context of climate change. Ecosystems 7:625–637, Enquist F (1924) Sambandet mellan klimat och växtgränser. Based on ringing data from the Netherlands, Visser et al. 2013) and waterborne DOC (Holden et al. Environ Sci Technol 16:735‒740, Charman DJ, Beilman DW, Blaauw M et al (2013) Climate-related changes in peatland carbon accumulation during the last millennium. Oikos 78:3‒14, Carpenter SR, Cole JJ, Pace ML, Van de Bogert M, Bade DL, Bastviken D, Gille CM, Hodgson JR, Kitchell JF, Kritzberg ES (2005) Ecosystem subsidies: terrestrial support of aquatic food webs from, Carroll EA, Sparks TH, Collinson N, Beebee TJC (2009) Influence of temperature on the spatial distribution of first spawning dates of the common frog (, Carter CW, Suffet IH (1982) Binding of DDT to dissolved humic materials. forest harvest and wetland drainage). At a global scale (Guo and Giffort 2002), current SOC losses and gains in grasslands can be predominantly attributed to changes in land cover and management, whereas the role of climate change remains uncertain but is predicted to increase over the coming century (Smith et al.
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