Study Background: Cnidoscolous aconitifolius leaf (Chaya; Efo Iyana ipaja in Yoruba language) is a common vegetable plant served as sauce and has many traditional health benefit claims such as treatment of alcoholism, insomnia, gout, scorpion stings, memory and vision impairment owing to its phytochemical and phytonutrient constituents. Interestingly, all accessions were reported to be toxic, while non toxic plants were found only in Southern Mexico (Ramkat, 2013; Valdes-Rodriguez et al., 2013). Female and male flower, removed. Seeds are rich in triglycerides, mainly ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) and contain the poison ricin. D.Euphorbia obesa. Or, drink it like a tea. The major fatty acids in Jatropha oil consist of monounsaturated oleic (44%), polyunsaturated linoleic (33.3%) and saturated palmitic (14.7%) and stearic (6.7%) acids (Devappa et al., 2010). G,H.Euphorbia grandicornis. In addition, while AMVN-induced lipid peroxidation was inhibited by 17.7% and 29.4% by MEMO and BHA, respectively, Fe2+/ascorbate system-induced lipid peroxidation was inhibited by 57.9% and 78.9% by MEMO and BHA, respectively. The toxicity of raw castor beans is due to the presence of ricin [24], a naturally occurring lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein). Reply. Ricinus communis or castor bean is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide (Foster et al., 2010). Aim and Objectives: This work was designed to … Improves glucose metabolism and prevents diabetes. In the western part of Nigeria it is called different names such as Efo Iyana-Ipaja and Efo Jerusalem, while in the Niger Delta of Nigeria; it has been nick-named “Hospital Too Far” because of its numerous health benefits. Gastrointestinal distress, abdominal pain, severe vomiting, bloody diarrhea, cessation of rumination, dullness, weakness, thirst, prostration, convulsion, uremia, and death may occur. Physical symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, tachycardia, hypotension, and seizures persisting for up to a week with blood, plasma, or urine concentration of ricin been detectable and measured to confirm diagnosis [79,80]. In vitro study indicated that the methanolic extract of M. oppositifolius (MEMO) leaves failed to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by AAPH, while BHA offered 55.5% inhibition [62]. HEALTH BENEFIT OF CHAYA(EFO IYANA-IPAJA) 5 months ago yorubawiki . Cnidoscolous aconitifolius (Miller) I. M. Johnston (Euphorbiaceae) known as tree spinach (English), efo iyana ipaja, or efo Jerusalem (Yoruba) is commonly found growing in western parts of Nigeria. 8). The seed cake is nutrient rich and therefore suitable as fertilizer (Ramkat, 2013) and has a crude protein content of 68%, which is far higher than in soybean (45.7%) (Aregheore et al., 2003). H. Cyathia. 6300 species. August 1, 2020. Ẹni tó ńbẹ̀rù àti á¹£ubú, àti dìde á nira fún un . Relationships among members of the Euphorbiaceae, based on morphological characters [Levin, G. A., and Simpson, M. G. (1994). Although the plant is mainly cultivated as food it has . The Yoruba adage, which says, ‘Kokoro to nje efo, inu efo lo wa’, literarily meaning ‘the pest that is desecrating the flower, lives inside the flower’, is really phenomenal. Succulent Euphorbia species are major components of plant communities in southern Africa, as well as important ornamental cultivars. The Euphorbiaceae were traditionally classified into five subfamilies: Phyllanthoideae, Oldfieldioideae, Acalyphoideae, Crotonoideae, and Euphorbioideae. Bot. Gordon M. Cragg, ... David G.I. Cnidoscolous aconitifolius (Miller) I. M. Johnston (Euphorbiaceae) known as tree spinach (English), efo iyana ipaja, or efo Jerusalem (Yoruba) is commonly found growing in western parts of Nigeria. The fruit is a schizocarp, drupe, berry, or samara. Ground floor has 16 rooms all on one full plot of land at araromi bus stop area of iyana ipaja it is about 3 houses to the express. Nigeria it is called different names s uch as efo Iyana . This inhibition prevents chain elongation and leads to cell death. The shoot and leaves of C. aconitifolius are used as laxative, diuretic, circulation and lactation stimulants. Ann. The effects of several recovery diets containing 20% soya protein or 20% C. aconitifolius in place of soya protein or 10% soya proteins with 10% C. aconitifolius or commercial rat feed were assessed in PEM rats. Chaya is a leaf well known in Nigeria as ‘Hospital Too far’ and ‘Miracle Leaf’ is a leafy vegetable that originally comes from Mexico but can be well found in the southeastern part of Nigeria. 81, 33–144.] When the pepper mix has boiled through, in a pot, heat up palm oil and fry chopped onions till it softens, then you add the pepper and fry till it starts to take on the look of well fried stew. Nectaries are often present. It is an ornamental, evergreen, droughtdeciduous shrub of 3–5 m tall. The seeds are used for making jewelry and rosaries. The operatives of the Rapid Response Squad, RRS, of the Lagos Police Command and the Iyana Ipaja Area Command on Wednesday morning arrested 20 suspected hoodlums over gang war which erupted at Iyana-Ipaja area of Lagos, Southwest Nigeria on Tuesday. Some other names include Spinach Tree, Tread Softly, Cabbage Star, Chaya, Chicasquil, Devil nettle and Tree-spinach. Mordi and Akanji (2012) reported that vegetables which contain a number of phytochemicals with reduce anti-nutrients exalt health promoting effect. Chaya helps regulate blood pressure, improves circulation, is useful for digestion and disinfection and reduces cholesterol levels. In the western part of Nigeria it is called different names such as efo Iyana Ipaja and efo Jerusalem. G. Whole plant, showing enlarged stipular spines. The two genera with C4 taxa, Chamaesyce and Euphorbia, are both in the tribe Euphorbieae of subfamily Euphorbioideae. Inhalation or injection is considered to be the most lethal route of exposure. Toxicity can occur if the seeds and to a lesser extent foliage are ingested, but the hard outer coating should be damaged for allowing the release of ricin. Administration of the extract at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly (p<0.05) increased (p<0.05) the serum prolactin concentration whereas those of estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH reduced significantly. K 5 [0] C 5 [0] A 1–∞ G (3) [(2–∞)], superior. Gard. The large (32 cm long and 30 cm wide) palmate lobed leaves are alternately arranged. Anti-inflammatory [62] and antimicrobial effects [63,93] of the plant have also been reported. However, Ricinus communis is classified as the most poisonous plant on earth for humans [24]. Hospital Too Far is a great source of protein, vitamins, calcium, and iron, ascorbic acid, and also a rich source of antioxidants. (Everitt J.N. 81, 203–238.] Do not throw this away as it is a good source of nutrients. Current consensus based on botanical, genetic and archaeological evidence supports that the southern border of the Amazon region was the first centre of cassava domestication (Olsen and Schaal, 2001). Its mechanism of action was identified as a protein kinase C (PKC) activator and it also had potent antileukemic effects in addition to its topical effects.118 Another study of the differential effects of PEP005 on PKCα and PKCδ suggested that the drug induced apoptosis through this pathway, suggesting that targeting PKC isoforms is a valid approach to cancer therapy.119 These promising results have led to the initiation of clinical trials and topical PEP005 is in Phase II development for the treatment of actinic keratoses and basal cell carcinoma.120, Victor Kuete, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 2014. However, ingestion of seeds of the castor oil plant is rare [74]. Genera not assigned to a subfamily are included in the polyphyletic Phyllanthoideae. Anthers are longitudinal, poricidal, or transverse in dehiscence. Kingston, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010, Plants of the Euphorbiaceae family and particularly members of the Euphorbia genus have long been known to yield latexes with irritant and carcinogenic properties and these properties have been associated with diterpenes of the phorbol class.113 Members of the Euphorbia genus also contain diterpenes with other skeletons, among them the ingenane derivative PEP005 (38).114,115, The sap of the plant Euphorbia peplus is used in Australia for the treatment of skin cancers and there is preliminary evidence to support its efficacy.116 The active agent of this sap was identified as PEP005117 and topical applications of this compound, also known as PEP005, cured a series of subcutaneous mouse and human tumors on mice. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, phlobatannins, and triterpenes. This plant is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India but is widespread throughout tropical regions and is widely used as an ornamental plant [66,67]. I. Cyathium, showing bracts and male and female flowers. Fruit is a capsule covered with soft prickles that contains three hard, shiny, brown seeds. The bean also contains ricin-communis agglutinine (red blood cells agglutination and hemolysis; only intravenously), and ricinine (convulsions related to an increased release of glutamate and inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor subtype A (GABAA) in the brain). Figure 8. By Henry Ojelu. Chaya traditionally has been recommended for a number of ailments including diabetes, obesity, kidney stones, hemorrhoids, acne, and eye problems (Diaz-Bolio 1975). The anti-inflammatory activity of the crude extracts therefore could be due to those compounds. Jatropha is planted on an estimated 1.5 mio ha in Indonesia, on 100–200,000 ha in China, 20,000 ha in Brazil, 120,000 ha in Africa (mainly in Madagascar and Zambia) and has a huge potential in India and other tropical countries (Carels, 2013; Brittaine and Lutaladio, 2010). The corolla is usually apopetalous with 5 [rarely 0] valvate or imbricate petals. Some studies suggest that chaya contains more nutritional substances than spinach. Although the plant is mainly cultivated as food it has continued to be an important medicinal plant. Because the leaves have been boiled, the liquid is safe to use or drink. E-F.Euphorbia milii, crown-of-thorns. A.Chamaesyce maculata, close-up of leaves and cyathia. The goals are to improve perfusion by aggressive fluid resuscitation, vasopressor therapy, and replenishing electrolytes. To prevent further systemic absorption, gastric decontamination (emesis, lavage, and activated charcoal) should be considered depending on the time of ingestion. The large (32 cm long and 30 cm wide) palmate lobed leaves are alternately arranged. This is exactly what summarizes the nefarious activities of a guy that works with Otunba Mike Adenuga Jnr’s telecoms company, Globacom. However, ricin has been used as a poison for criminal and terrorist purposes. Armando E. González-Stuart, José O. Rivera, in Dietary Interventions in Liver Disease, 2019. The plant is also used in African folk medicine in the treatment of warts, cold tumors, and indurations of mammary glands, corns, and moles [70–72]. Ex vivo studies showed that MEMO at 100 mg/kg body weight reduced malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels by 34.5% and 12.0%, respectively, compared with the control. MALPIGHIALES. Ẹni tó ńbẹ̀rù àti ṣubú, àti dìde á nira fún un, AMAZING HEALTH BENEFITS OF GARDEN EGG(IGBA), fluconazole 100mg for salefluconazole tablet, Àìrìn jìnnà làìrí abuké ọ̀kẹ́rẹ́; báa bá dé igbó tó tó igbó, àá rí ẹranko tó ńtiro, Ohun tó ṣe àkàlàmàgbò tó fi dẹ́kun ẹ̀rin rínrín, tó bá ṣe igúnnugún, á wokoko mọ́ orí ẹyin ni, Àjọjẹ ò dùn bí ẹnìkan ò bá ní; ọjọ́ a ní la ńṣe àjọjẹ. (Figure 8.35). Historically castor bean has been cultivated as an agricultural crop for the oil derived from its seeds containing 40%–60% toxic oil with numerous industrial and cosmetic uses (Foster et al., 2010). Hospital Too Far is a great source of protein, vitamins, calcium, and iron, ascorbic acid, and also a rich source of antioxidants. Ann. The leaves are simple, rarely trifoliolate or palmate, spiral, opposite, or whorled, stipules generally present, these sometimes modified as glands or spines (e.g., many succulent Euphorbias). When you boil Chaya leaves, much of the vitamin C ends up in the cooking water. I–K.Euphorbia sp. TRANSLATION Whoever is scared of falling down, will find it difficult to... YORUBA PROVERB Àìrìn jìnnà làìrí abuké ọ̀kẹ́rẹ́; báa bá dé igbó tó tó igbó, àá rí ẹranko tó ńtiro TRANSLATION Your inability to travel far... Yoruba Proverb Ohun tó ṣe àkàlàmàgbò tó fi dẹ́kun ẹ̀rin rínrín, tó bá ṣe igúnnugún, á wokoko mọ́ orí ẹyin ni. Bot. Errrrrrr, just roughly blend in food processor or blender just and set that aside. The genius Cnidoscolus consist of 40 or more species, but only chayamansa refers to the vegetable chaya. Purified castor oil has numerous uses. Miss. . best place to buy cialis online reviews – super cialis 24 cialis, order cialis 20 mg cialis prices cialis prices, cialis 80mg pills cialis 80mg uk cialis without a doctor prescription, dissertation law short research paper best quality essay writing service, essay writing uk rubrics for essay writing gre writing essay questions, buy book review essays written writing the essay, generic cialis pills – viagra overnight best generic cialis, physician job description and salary, Chaya a wonderful source of protein, vitamins, calcium, and iron and also a rich source of antioxidants. In Tunisia, the plant is used as a contraceptive [66]. Chamaesyce is also similar to Pedilanthus and possibly the genus Cubanthus (Webster, 1994), other segregates of Euphorbia. RTB is a lectin composed of 262 amino acids that is able to bind terminal galactose residues on cell surfaces [77]. It’s a good source of protein, vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and various minerals and enzymes that are beneficial for the body. The Euphorbiaceae consist of monoecious or dioecious, herbs, shrubs, vines, or trees, latex present in some major groups. The hoodlums smashed the head of an RRS officer and the rear wind shield of his patrol car at Abule Oki, Iyana Ipaja area of Lagos. L.Euphorbia ingens, simple dichasium of cyathia, the central one in fruit. István Ujváry, in Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (Third Edition), 2010. The 2007 edition of Guinness World Records also ranks Ricinus communis as the most poisonous plant in the world. The gynoe-cium is syncarpous, with a superior ovary, 3 [2–∞] carpels and locules. Mordi and Akanji (2012) reported that vegetables which contain a number of phytochemicals with reduce anti-nutrients exalt health promoting effect. The B-chain allows the entry of ricin into the cytosol, facilitating the penetration across the gastrointestinal wall. Organ damage includes fluid-filled lungs and edematous and swollen liver and kidneys. Hepatic and renal failures may occur. Translation If what took... Àjọjẹ ò dùn bí ẹnìkan ò bá ní; ọjọ́ a ní la ńṣe àjọjẹ. Placentation is apical-axile and pendulous, with an obturator (a protuberance from the funic-ulus or placenta at the base of the ovule); ovules are anatropous or hemitropous, bitegmic, 1 per carpel. chaya should never be cooked or stored in aluminium foil as it can produce a toxic reaction. Cassava is grown as a staple starch food crop on over 20 mio ha worldwide; major producers of cassava include Nigeria, Congo, Angola, Tanzania, Ghana and Mozambique in Africa; Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and Cambodia in Asia and Brazil in South America (FAOSTAT, 2014). ( Log Out / CDLI was formerly Ipaja Community Link which was established by Development Impact For Nigeria (DIFN) a UK based Diaspora led development agency working in Nigeria mainly with a view to encourage the UK Diaspora to partner in development projects in Nigeria primarily through volunteering. The plant is known to display antimicrobial activity and has been used to treat several ailments [66]. Chaya traditionally has been recommended for a number of ailments including diabetes, obesity, kidney stones, hemorrhoids, acne, and eye problems (Diaz-Bolio 1975). J. It is an ornamental, evergreen, drought deciduous shrub of 3 to 5 m tall (4). Michael G. Simpson, in Plant Systematics (Second Edition), 2010, Spurge family (after Euphorbus, physician to the king of Mauritania, 1st century). Thursday, 01-Jan-70 01:00:00 WAT from web. The seeds of the plant have three important constituents: an oil, castor oil, which is the glyceride of ricinoleic acid; a mildly toxic alkaloid ricinine [524-40-3]; and several isoforms of a highly poisonous glycoprotein ricin present up to 5% in the seeds. cialis, essay writing pollution college application essay about yourself essay 3rd grade, best essay website persuasive essay topis pay to write paper, freedom writer essay buying essays online wake county schools assignment, if you contract hiv from sex. The yearly production of castor oil seed exceeds over 1 million metric tonnes (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2009). Reply. Members of the Euphorbiaceae have worldwide distributions. The study concluded that the alterations in the female rat reproductive hormones by the extract are indications of adverse effect on the maturation and ovulation of follicles. Plants are self- or cross-pollinated by wind, with outcrossing as predominant mode of reproduction (Foster et al., 2010, Brigham, 1968). Copyright © All rights reserved. Euphorbiaceae. Called ‘efo Iyana-ipaja’ by the Yorubas and ‘ugu oyibo’ by the Igbos, some of its health benefits are: Cures skin blisters and scratches Blisters on the skin can be cured by squeezing the juice from the leaves and applying to the affected skin. Cnidoscolous aconitifolius (Miller) I. M. Johnston (Euphorbiaceae) known as tree spinach (English), efo iyana ipaja, or efo Jerusalem (Yoruba) is commonly found growing in western parts of Nigeria. Add the cooking water to soups. However, its consumption is good for health. Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), commonly known as castor oil plant, is a soft wooden small tree developed throughout tropics and warm temperature regions [66]. Ricin is considered as a chemical warfare. The leaves are commonly eaten as vegetables (Kuti and Torres, 1996). Tree Spinach Or Chaya Leaves(Efo Iyana-ipaja Or Ugu Oyibo) ₦ 50. However, various antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitors, phytate, saponins, lectins and phorbol esters) are present in the kernel meal of Jatropha, which make the seed cake and oil unsuitable for animal feed (Martinez-Herrera et al., 2010). No thought is given to the medicinal uses of its leaves. Iyana Ipaja Area in Lagos during a rainy season. Its leaf, root, and seed oil are used in inflammation treatment, liver disorders, hypoglycemic, and as a laxative [68,69] [66]. 127 Houses in Ipaja (Lagos) from ₦ 96,000. efo iyana ipaja, or efo Jerusalem (Yoruba) is commonly found growing in western Nigeria. K. Close-up of male flower, showing junction between filament and pedicel. A decoction of the root is used for anemia, pneumonia, and as an aphrodisiac, and the stick is chewed for oral hygiene and teeth cleaning [61]. The shrublike ornamental castor plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), is thought to be indigenous to northeast Africa and Asia but is now distributed worldwide. Share Tunde Bamigboye confirmed this. Chamaesyce may be derived from within Euphorbia, and may be closely related to Euphorbia subgenus Agaloma. There is no phylogeny within the tribe Euphorbieae. Euphorbiaceae or the spurge family is one of the largest and genetically diverse plant family with nearly 322 genera and 8,910 species, ranging from large woody trees to simple weeds (Mwine and Van Damme, 2011) and includes economically important species like Jatropha curcas, Manihot esculenta (cassava), Ricinus communis (castor bean) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) (Mwine and Van Damme, 2011). M.I. Considering the … It is an ornamental, evergreen, droughtdeciduous shrub of 3–5 m tall. It is also used traditionally for the treatment of convulsion, epilepsy, parasitic eye and kidney infections, as a diuretic and painkiller, and in treatment of paralysis, spasm, headache, and swelling. 2007). Chaya shoots and leaves have been taken as a laxative, diuretic, circulation stimulant, to improve digestion, to stimulate lactation, and to harden the fingernails. Castor bean (palma christi) is an annual leafy green plant that can grow up to 5 m high; the flowers are monoecious and without petals. The beans are used to produce castor oil, which is used in paints, varnishes, lubricants, and as purgative. In cases where castor beans or crude ricin preparations are the suspected poisons, ricinine can also serve as a biomarker (see, for example, Mouser et al., 2007). MrBiggs Outlet:The very first and most ... ... Osundewap The median lethal dose (LD50) of ricin is around 22 µg/kg in humans if exposure is from injection or inhalation while oral exposure to this lectin is less toxic (though still toxic) and a lethal dose can be up to 20–30 mg/kg [78]. Most exposures result in uncomfortable but limited gastroenteritis and minimal systemic toxicity. Raw chaya leaves contain hydrocyanic acid.In other words, they are considered toxic.Cooking the leaves for at least 3-5 minutes, however, removes the toxins and makes chaya safe to eat. In a recent study, the antioxidant properties of the methanolic extract of the leaves of M. oppositifolius, in comparison with BHA as a standard antioxidant, using three free radical generators, namely, hydrophilic radical generator 2,2-azobis(2-amidino propane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), hydrophobic radical generator 2,2-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN), and hydroxyl radical and nonspecific radical generator Fe2+/ascorbate system in an in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo model systems, were performed. Confirm. The stamens are 1–∞, distinct or connate. Ricin is so toxic that the amount contained in a single bean would kill a human in just a few minutes, and there is no antidote [24]. Yakubu Musa Toyin, ... Akanji Musbau Adewunmi, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 2014. Ipaja and efo Jerusalem. But free after Dopemu under bridge. J. curcas, native to Central America, was transported by Portuguese in the eighteenth century via Cabo Verde to Africa and Asia (Valdes-Rodriguez et al., 2013). Iyana Ipaja (iyanaipaja) bus-stop. RESIDENTS of Iyana-Ipaja living along the Lagos-Abeokuta Expressway will not forget in a hurry the inferno that woke them up from sleep in the early hours of Tuesday. such as Efo Iyana-Ipaja and Efo Jerusalem, while in the Niger Delta of Nigeria; it has been nick-named “Hospital Too Far” because of its numerous health benefits. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities of the plant was demonstrated [66,73]. Materials and Methods: In this study, PEM was induced in weaning male Wistar albino rats by feeding them with low protein diet for 2 weeks. C.Euphorbia baioensis, showing paired stipular spines. Wednesday, 28-Jun-17 06:56:14 WAT from Android. In Yoruba, the Chaya leaf is called ‘Efo Iyana-Ipaja’ and the Igbos call it ‘Ugu Oyibo’. Mrs Silifat Adeyemo, the wife of an official of the Lagos State Traffic Management, Rotimi Adeyemo, who was killed by a policeman at Iyana Ipaja in November 2018, has pleaded with the Lagos State EndSARS panel to help her secure scholarship up to the university for her three children. TRANSLATIONIf the dog is adorn... Yoruba Proverb Ẹni tó ńbẹ̀rù àti ṣubú, àti dìde á nira fún un. Ricin is one of the most toxic substances known and as such was once considered a chemical weapon (Agent W) but is now subject to the Chemical Weapons Convention.

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