The objective of the present study is to optimise the blade geometry, viz. The pressure fluctuation and the corresponding frequency spectrum at different monitor points were obtained from the simulation. The impeller is a double-width, double-inlet (DWDI) centrifugal type with two nonstaggered blade rows. Figure 4 shows a denser mesh at the leading edge of the impeller. Design considerations for high pressure ratio centrifugal compressor have been systematically studied by many researchers for decades. Also shown in Figure 16 is the performance data from the B#1 and B#2 impellers. The profile labelled with 0.0263 (local radius of curvature/D) corresponds to the B#2 impeller. The NEW impeller has the smallest performance variation in almost all the parameters predicted, particularly for the volute losses as pointed out previously. Similarly, the measured power reductions for the three impellers at the design condition are 5.7%, 7.8%, and 14.0% lower than the required power shown in (3), respectively. CFD predictions shown in Figure 21 for the FS and MS fans clearly demonstrate the Re effect, which is larger for the B#1 and B#2 impellers than the NEW impeller. The purpose of this paper is to identify /observe and determine the pattern of pressure distribution by using CFD simulation, Blade thickness and blade height are the most influencing parameters on the performance of pump. However, the reliabilities of the individual components, when placed in the overall configuration, may not remain the same as when the components are considered separately. Adapted from the grid topology used for the impeller design CFD, the impeller grid ended at a fixed radius for all coupling calculations except for the NEW impeller, which ended at a slightly smaller radius. Design optimization of a centrifugal pump impeller and volute using computational fluid dynamics J H Kim1,2, K T Oh1, K B Pyun1, C K Kim1, Y S Choi2 and J Y Yoon3 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong This paper was prepared under the support of the Applied Research Program of the Office of Naval Research administered at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division under the IAR Program. The continuity and Navier-Stokes equations with the k-e turbulence model and the standard wall functions were, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. In order to effectively manage the craft fuel consumption, a reduction in fan’s operating power is necessary. CFD prediction results were also made for the 11-bladed B#2 impeller, which was constructed based on the 12-bladed impeller to maintain a constant throat area, that is, at the location with the maximum blade thickness. The MS CFD predictions agree well with the model test data for both B#1 and NEW impellers, particularly the rise and fall for the NEW impeller. Isometric View of Inlet Boundary Condition, Fig. Finally, the internal flow fields were analyzed to understand the mechanism of efficiency improvement. Test data for all three fans was collected from the 1/5-scale fan test rig as shown in Figure 20. The dramatic reduction in the volute loss for the NEW impeller suggests that the exit flow from the new impeller matches better with the downstream volute flow than those for the existing impellers. Centrifugal pump usage has increased over the past year due to its importance and efficiency. points were set at the impeller-volute coupling interface, inlet and outlet faces of the pump. To accurately capture the boundary layer and loading on the blade surface, the grid on the blade portion is structured and all other surfaces are either structured or unstructured as shown in Figure 5. The width of the impeller is almost linearly related to the impeller total head generated. Additionally, The blower design is a single stage forward- curved centrifugal blower used in (40) tons Rice Mill in Pyay, Bago west region. The widths for the two existing impellers shown in Figure 2 are 0.1207 D and 0.1350 D, respectively. Based on this concept, the B#2 11-bladed impeller blades were extended inward radially at the leading edge and its angle measured from the shroud was modified from 0 degree for a 2D blade like the B#1 blade to 10 degrees. Conventionally, design optimization can be carried out for such a problem by either performing a multiobjective optimization or by using constraints to limit the shaft power and to maximize the output power. J. J. Phelan, S. H. Russel, and W. C. Zeluff, “A study of the influence of reynolds number on the performance of centrifugal fans,” ASME Paper No. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. The optimization process, including the comparison of the surrogate models, can provide reference for the optimization design of other pumps. The steering process and 3D blade construction is discussed in the following sections. Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), vol. Impeller B#2 was used to investigate the grid density requirement. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Centrifugal, atmospheric pressure pushes the fluid towards the pump. Due to the time constraint during the design phase, a total of 48 designs were analyzed during the design iterations. and then, the number of blades has been varied to analyze the pumpâs performance. Before the diffused fluid started separating at the hub while the impeller width was increased, Kim et al. The peak of the “Non-GA” points in Figure 13 was not selected due to the aggressiveness of the design which will be described in the next section. Numerical simulations are carried out to study the pump performance. This Reynolds number effect is larger for the existing impellers as compared to the new impeller. This reduction in power agrees with the 8.7% reduction obtained from the CFD predictions. In Figure 9(a), three bellmouth/shroud profiles are presented and labelled based on the local curvature near the blade and shroud intersection. The performance metrics in the form of the objective functions were passed back to the GA for the next design iteration. This approach has been used to develop a set of load and resistance factors instead of just a single safety factor to address all the uncertainties. This may have been caused by the unstable gap-flow solution using the current steady calculation procedure. 14. Fig. 78-WA/PTC-1, 1978. The impeller blade, This work deals with the numerical investigation of the effects that the pertinent design parameters of a centrifugal pump have on the steady state liquid flow in a three-dimensional centrifugal pump. The impeller flow field is unsteady and periodic due to the interaction between each blade and the asymmetric volute casing (Figure 2), particularly at the two tongue locations. The computational resources from the Naval Oceanographic Office Major Shared Resource Center (NAVOCEANO MSRC) were provided through the DoD High Performance Computing Modernization Program (HPCMP). When the losses in the volute were included, the total fan efficiency further reduced to between 76.9% and 78.3% for all fans except the B#2 impeller which decreased to 74%. Considering the computational efficiency, the wall-function approach was used for the current calculations. 6. Unlike the other parameters mentioned above, the efficiency seems to be independent of the width change. The critical flow separation affecting performance happens at the shroud near the blade leading edge. Y. T. Lee, L. Mulvihill, R. Coleman et al., “LCAC lift fan redesign and CFD evaluation,”, Y. T. Lee, V. Ahuja, A. Hosangadi, and M. Ebert, “Shape optimization of a multi-element foil using an evolutionary algorithm,”, S. Kim, J. (iii)The 2D blade profile optimization, based on a numerical coupling between a CFD calculation and a genetic algorithm optimization scheme, is able to achieve a composite objective with a projected shaft power and a power output. There are two other parameters related to the lift-side performance. The conclusions drawn from the comparisons are as follows. 1st ed. The current low-specific-speed (≈0.2) baseline lift-fan impeller (named the B#1 impeller in the present paper) shown in Figure 1 is fitted with a double-discharge volute (DDV) shown in Figure 2 to provide air for both cushion lift and thrust vectoring. The increased loading of the blade near midchord resulted in flow acceleration especially near the shroud where the original blades were prone to a large area of flow separation. However, the limited compression ratio of the pumps limits the achievable ultimate pressure, Design and Analysis of Centrifugal Pump Impeller using ANSYS FLUENT. The comparisons between the CFD predictions and measurements confirm that the existing fan was overpowered at design, which enabled a new impeller design with a lower power requirement. The lift-side static and total pressures, along with their efficiencies are also tabulated. According to a form of Euler 's fluid dynamics equation, known as the pump and turbine equation , the energy input to the fluid is proportional to the flow's local spinning velocity multiplied by the local impeller tangential velocity . Fan efficiency is further reduced to the 74–78% range by including the volute losses. The ONR Program Manager was Dr. Ki-Han Kim. The commercial software ANSYS CFX 14.5 was utilized to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by using the Shear stress transport turbulence model. Based on Navier-Stokes equations and shear stress transport (SST) turbulent models, 3-D unsteady flow field of the pump was simulated numerically under several operating conditions. The performance test set-up was constructed using the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) standards  as a reference. Therefore, this paper proposes that the reliability of the structure be explicitly satisfied at the component level as well as at the system level during design. From the simulation results, it can be observed that as the rotation speed of the impeller increases, the pressure within the impeller increases. The impeller efficiencies of the two steer blades and the 2D design blade are almost identical. The current DDV further complicates the flow pattern, shortens the pressure recovery path compared to the single discharge volute, and produces double pressure peaks at two peripheral tongue locations. The developed redesign procedures established based on the findings from the assessment of the existing impellers are herewith provided below. Following the Re suggestion of Phelan et al. 4.2 Important Elements of a Centrifugal Compressor Fig.4.1 shows the essential parts of a typical centrifugal compressor. The shroud gap between the stationary bellmouth and the rotating shroud is shown in Figure 18 for the B#1 impeller. Due to the geometrical symmetry, the CFD calculations only cover one single blade passage for the gridding system used, as shown in Figure 5. New to this edition: examples and applications in Matlab, Ansys, and Abaqus; structured problem solving approach in all worked examples; new discussions throughout, including the direct method of deriving finite element equations, use of strong and weak form formulations, complete treatment of dynamic analysis, and detailed analysis of heat transfer problems; more examples and exercises; and, all figures revised and redrawn for clarity. finite element analysis, structural analysis, computational, calculation of the simulations faster, more accurate and more efficient [12. The uncertainty of the measured pressure was estimated to be within 0.25%  at design conditions. The shroud gap between the bellmouth and the shroud carries less than 1% of the inflow back from the volute to the impeller for the current fans. The calculations verified that the new impeller matches better with the original volute. The simulation results showed that the pressure fluctuation in the pump was periodical at different operating flow rates. Fan efficiency is further reduced to the 74–78% range by including the volute losses. In order to further enhance the gain in reducing the shaft power, a trailing-edge modification was adapted. The convergence of the solution is determined by the variation of the calculated impeller torque and the mass-averaged total and static pressure variations at the inlet and outlet planes. The conditions at the interface serve as information exchange between the impeller and the volute and are obtained as a part of the solution. It represents the blade trailing-edge span with the shroud terminating at the blade trailing edge. Although the inlet was controlled with a velocity condition, the inlet pressure was predicted as part of the simulation since the pressure pertains to the upstream propagating characteristic. GRIDGEN was used to generate the initial CFD grid for the original blade shape and subsequent grids were automatically generated with shape deformation propagating through the grids. Meakhail and Park , Atif et al. The steer blade-1 was considered too aggressive in meeting the requirement; therefore, the more conservative steer blade was chosen for further investigation. However, the majority of the prior related investigations in the literature dealt with centrifugal impellers and single discharge volutes. Each impeller blade row has backward-swept blades mounted between a common back plate and shrouds. Fan performance data obtained from impeller/volute coupling CFD. Figure 2 – Centrifugal Blower Design with Airfoil Impeller Arrangement in AxSTREAM Perhaps the most important centrifugal fan impeller orientation, the backward orientation, comes in three standard shapes: backward inclined, backward curved, and backward inclined aerofoil (or airfoil). The CFD predictions suggest that a Reynolds number effect exists between the model- and full-scale fans. Fig. The use of streamline curvature or potential-flow/Euler codes would not accomplish the goals for the current redesign effort. Impeller design is the most significant factor for determining performance of a centrifugal pump. In addition, a computational method accounting for all the aerodynamic losses is required. ANSYS CFX (ver.14.0). This work aims to study the performance analysis The design modification was completed by decoupling the impeller from the volute. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Copyright © 2011 Yu-Tai Lee et al. The associated flow fields of all three profiles indicate that the original flow separation at the shroud was improved in the two new profiles. A double-inlet, double-width impeller was modified to fit into a baseline double-discharge volute for a centrifugal fan. Side View of Pressure Distribution at 2500, Fig. Balancing holes in single-suction centrifugal pumps are generally applied to attenuate the axial thrust caused by a pressure difference between the front side of a shroud and the rear side of a hub of an impeller. 3640-3643 (2017). The double-discharge volute casing is a structural constraint and is maintained for its shape. The fan output power and the total-to-total efficiency were calculated using the following formulae:FanPWRout=Δlift⋅lift+Δthruster⋅Qthruster,(8)fan=FanPWRoutShaftPWR. The study revealed that although the existing impellers were high performing to start with, there was some margin for improvement. Without predefined knowledge of the volute feedback to the impeller performance, impellers from these past efforts [3–5] were designed without taking the volute feedback into consideration. (7) Problems arise, and diagnosing pump problems is a difficult and often confusing process. The baseline volute shown in Figure 3 is connected to the impeller with a sudden expansion in the flow path area. T. J. Barth, “A 3D upwind euler solver for unstructured meshes,” Paper No. The performance data shown in Figure 9(b) suggests that the shroud labelled with 0.0476 provides the largest gain in efficiency. Isometric View of Rotational Boundary Condition, Fig. Although the calculated static pressures are all higher than the required lift-side discharge pressure (/ref>1), the air static pressures at the lift side for both NEW and B#2 impellers are lower than that of the B#1 impeller. The measured power reduction for the new impeller is 8.8% lower than the baseline. A blade leading-edge extension and sweep into the shroud turning area prevents the air from separating from the shroud surface and improves the impeller’s efficiency. Table 2 shows the performance data obtained from the impeller/volute coupling calculations for all fans. i have design it nearly that explain how pump work powered by: http://industries-news.blogspot.com/ A method is presented for redesigning a centrifugal impeller and its inlet duct. The results showed that energy consumption decreases with blade height. Specifically, the measured lift-side pressures for the B#1, B#2, and NEW impellers are 13.8%, 9.6%, and 3.7% higher than the required pressure (shown in (2)) at the design condition, respectively. Subsequently, a piecemeal approach was taken in the redesign effort and the hub, shroud, and bellmouth as well as the impeller blades were redesigned to improve the performance of the fan system. The pump unit has been modeled using PTC Creo (ver. In order to analyze the flow, Computation Calculations were also performed to investigate the effect of using the wall-function procedure. Professional engineers will benefit from the introduction to the many useful applications of finite element analysis, and will gain a better understanding of its limitations and special uses. The deformation was performed on a 2D airfoil shape and maintained along the spanwise direction. A heavy-duty air cushion vehicle usually employs centrifugal lift fans to pressurize the air cushion and power the steering thruster. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, vol. The fluids that, region of low pressure to a higher pressure region via an impeller. Comparing the data between Tables 2 and 3, the gap effect for the B#1 impeller inversely affects performance as compared to the other two impellers. Here, we outline some basics about the pump and follow that up with the simple steps used in the design process. It mainly consists of (i) inlet casing with the converging nozzle (ii) the impeller (iii) the diffuser and (iv In order to establish a design strategy within a constrained design window, two existing impellers B#1 and B#2 were first analyzed with a second-order accurate CFD method which solves a full compressible form of the Navier Stokes equations with preconditioning to obtain an efficient time-marching numerical scheme  for the incompressible flow. Therefore, the design can be. Two cases were considered for this study: impeller, and combined impeller and diffuser. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. The blade was designed as a 2D blade to reduce the manufacturing cost. Derived from idea of combining the advantages of two-dimensional hydraulic design theory, genetic algorithm, and boundary vorticity flux diagnosis, an optimal hydraulic design method of centrifugal pump impeller was developed. Three basic types of impellers: open, semi-open, closed Impeller design is the most significant factor for determining performance of a centrifugal pump. The efficiency predicted under the design flow rate was selected as the objective function. The redesign effort was geared towards meeting the design volute exit pressure while reducing the power required to operate the fan. The shroud gap flow accounts for 0.52%, 0.92%, and 0.58% of the inflow at the design condition for the three impellers. This allows the 14-bladed baseline B#1 impeller to be redesigned as the 11-bladed NEW impeller. A periodic boundary condition was enforced for the passage boundaries between the blades and a no-slip condition was used at the blade, shroud, backplate, and shaft surfaces. A detailed study was also carried out of the coupled impeller-volute system. design a radial type vane profile based on the fundamental understanding of published procedures.
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